Select observation columns to view data

Run models to view model comparison

Run model to view figures

Run model to view model estimates

Run models to select models

Select observation columns to view data

Run models to view model comparison

Run model to view figures

Run model to view model estimates

Run models to select models

Fitted SE and CP models must be selected before detection probability can be estimated. Return to the Model Selection tabs under Searcher Efficiency and Carcass Persistence.
Run estimate to view figure


Select SE and CP models fit to matching carcass classes to run model
Run estimate to view summary

Run estimate to view figure

Run estimate to view summary

For help, see: GenEst User Guide and GenEst Statistical Models

GenEst is an R software package for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind and solar power facilities. Mortality estimation requires five data files:

  1. searcher efficiency field trial results (SE),
  2. carcass persistence field trial results (CP),
  3. schedule for periodic carcass surveys (SS),
  4. fraction of total carcasses falling in the searched area at each unit searched or density-weighted proportion (DWP), and
  5. summary data from the carcass surveys (CO), including unit and search date of each carcass discovery along with values of other, optional covariates or carcass characteristics

Data sets can be uploaded under the Data Input tab. Formats are explained in the user guide. Example data sets are available for loading into GenEst under the Example Data tab.

Analysis involves several steps:

  • uploading data---click the Data Input tab,
  • entering General Input parameters---click the Analyses tab,
  • fitting searcher efficiency and carcass persistence models--- click the Searcher Efficiency and Carcass Persistence tabs, and
  • estimating total mortality and splitting mortality estimate by various subcategories (such as species or sector or season) as desired---click the Mortality Estimation tab

Example data sets

Wind---Cleared plots, bats + birds

Wind---Road and pad searches, bats + birds

Wind---Road and pad searches, bats

Solar---Power tower

Solar---Photovoltaic (PV)


Mock data

NOTE: .csv versions of the data can be downloaded from the GenEst page at

GenEst v1.4.9 (2023-05-25)

Authors: Daniel Dalthorp (USGS), Juniper Simonis (DAPPER Stats), Lisa Madsen (OSU), Manuela Huso (USGS), Paul Rabie (WEST), Jeffrey Mintz (USGS), Robert Wolpert (Duke), Jared Studyvin (WEST), and Franzi Korner-Nievergelt (oikostat).

Web Design and Graphics User Interface Programming: Juniper Simonis (DAPPER Stats), Daniel Dalthorp (USGS).

GenEst is provided under universal public domain, license CC0 1.0.

The development of GenEst was supported by The US Bureau of Land Management, The US Geological Survey, The National Renewable Energy, WEST Inc., Bat Conservation International, Avangrid Renewables, American Wind Wildlife Institute, and Oregon State University.

BLM logo USGS logo NREL logo WEST logo BCI logo AWWI logo Avangrid logo DAPPER stats logo oikostat logo Oregon State logo Duke logo

US Geological Survey (USGS)

This is an incremental update to GenEst v1.0.0 which was approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after rigorous review in compliance with US Geological Survey publishing and associated with IP-101457. This update is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The update has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). No warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS or the U.S. Government as to the functionality of the software and related material nor shall the fact of release constitute any such warranty. The software is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the software.

Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. (WEST)

This program is an 'AS IS' without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the program is with you. Should the program prove defective, you assume all cost of all necessary servicing, repair or correction. If this program is modified and/or redistributed, Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. is not liable for any damages, including any general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use this program (including but not limited to loss of data or data being rendered inaccurate or losses sustained by you or third parties or a failure of the program to operate with any other programs), even if such holder or other party has been advised of the possibility of such damages.